Miinimumpalga tõstmisest – negatiivsete tagajärgedega nii USA’s kui Eestis
Miinimumpalgast on varem Vabalogis juttu olnud, kuid seos peatselt USA esindajate koja ette tuleva ettepanekuga on teema leidnud taas laiemat kõlapinda. Üks lühike, kuid selle eest selgemaid ja paremini jälgitavaid arutelusid viimase kümnendi uurimustest selles valdkonnas on kirjutatud Will Wilkinsoni poolt, kes suunab tähelepanu sellele, kui tähtis on mõista miinimumpalga tagajärgi:
Meanwhile, studies continue to appear emphasizing the hazards of minimum wage laws. I find Neumark’s recent paper with Olena Nizalova especially unsettling. They find evidence that minimum wage laws discourage teenagers and young adults from acquiring the human capital they need in order to get better jobs and higher wages later in life. That is, minimum wage laws work to ensure that those who already have the fewest opportunities to develop their capacities, have even fewer still. They say this baleful effect is strongest for young blacks.
Progressives find grand, symbolic political importance in the minimum wage. But isn’t their most important concern the welfare and prospects of the poor?
Loomulikult võib öelda, et see on USA ja Eesti on väikeriik, kus päris samad reeglid ei kehti, kuid õnneks on miinimumpalga tõstmise mõju kohta Eestis olemas Maarit Hinnosaare ja Tairi Rõõmu 2003. aasta uurimus Labour Market Impact of the Minimum Wage in Estonia: An
Empirical Analysis (PDF), mille kokkuvõttest pärineb järgmine seik:
The results of our empirical analysis imply that the minimum wage had a negative impact on employment in Estonia during the time period 1995–2000. This result is noteworthy, considering that a signifi cant increase in the minimum wage is expected to take place within the next few years. While in the period 1995–2000 the minimum wage was less than 30% of the average wage, this ratio is expected to reach 41% by the year 2008. The relative rise in the minimum wage compared to the average might lead to a stronger negative impact on the labour market.
Autoritel on ka ettepanek märksa tõhusama sissetulekuid kasvatava meetodi kohta:
An example of an alternative policy, which increases low-earning workers’ welfare without generating a disemployment effect, is a reduction in the tax burden for low-earning workers. In the light of this, the expected tax reform (according to which the income tax is reduced to 20% from the current level of 26% and the tax-free minimum is raised from 12,000 kroons a year to 24,000 kroons within the next three years) is a better measure for fi ghting poverty than increasing the minimum wage. One disadvantage of a reduction in the low-earners tax burden, compared with the minimum wage measure, is that the resulting increase in
the net wage will be fi nanced by the government, not by the private sector, which will reduce state revenues.
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