Hindade ja vaba turumajanduse olemusest…väga lühidalt
Lynne Kiesling kirjutas natuke rohkem kui aasta tagasi hindade olemusest turumajanduses ja seda informatsiooni agregeerimis seisukohast:
Prices come into being because they are a parsimonious and useful tool for coordinating the wishes of diverse, heterogeneous individuals into mutually beneficial actions. The information aggregation is an important and useful part of that process, because it’s the aggregation of private information on preferences and costs that lets you figure out if you want to buy or sell at that price. Through that process you discover how strong your preferences are, or how high or low your costs are, so you learn the information about the preferences and costs of others in the process of figuring out if it’s worth it to you to buy or sell at that price. But the aggregation is not the goal of the process; the goal of the process is individual happiness, for both buyers and sellers.
And the beauty of prices is that they coordinate not just the diverse, private information and incentives of individuals, but in so doing they enable those individuals to create and receive value. Gains from trade. Surplus. Happiness. Mutual benefit. One of the commenters claimed that wikis are different from prices because in markets it’s about individual gain but in wikis it’s about social gain (my paraphrase). That is a naive misunderstanding of market processes. Market processes are robust and valuable precisely because they provide an institutional framework in which individual incentives are, through no conscious intention, channeled into creating social gain. This is one of the fundamental and oft-overlooked insights about markets: in order to have exchange, you have to cooperate (by adhering to rules/laws) and you have to have something to offer that others want, so you have to pay attention to the desires and preferences of others. As a seller you cannot gain if you are offering stuff that no one wants, or at prices they aren’t willing to pay, so you have to pay attention to someone’s preferences other than your own.
Vabast turumajandusest rääkides ja selle eeliseid teistele selgitades olen korduvalt kokku puutunud arusaamaga nagu puuduks vaba turumajandus tingimustes igasugused reeglid ja valitseb üleüldine kaos, milles jäävad kõige väiksemad ja võimetumad “elu hammasrataste vahele”. Nii tuli mul Rootsis tervele kursusele selgitada, et vaba turumajandus eeldab usaldust ja selleks on vaja lepinguid, kombeid ja isegi tabusid, mis võimaldavad koostööd ja arenevad aja jooksul välja institutsionaalseks raamistikuks, mis võib formaliseeruda näiteks seaduste näol. Sõna jälle Lynne Kieslingule:
One of the valuable dimensions of Hayek’s contribution to understanding human action is the recognition that human institutions, including markets, are not ever and cannot ever be perfect, because of the cognitive limitations of humans. However, he made the more defensible claim that among the class of human institutions, markets perform better on average than other institutions for the allocation of goods and services and the bringing into being of new goods and services. And of course, rules/institutions matter in determining how well market processes perform those valuable roles, which is why he devoted so much of his work to analyses of emergent order legal systems and their ability to provide necessary monitoring and enforcement to sustain the decentralized network systems we call civil society.
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